Council of Europe on the Draft Convention on Cyber Crime (COE Draft a revised Model Law on Computer and Computer Related Crime was prepared. is regarding computer crime and computer fraud, as well as what is being done by Center courtesy of redelocidi.tk The first recorded cyber crime took place in the year ! That is not surprising considering the fact that the abacus, which is thought to be the earliest form of a.
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Development of computer crime and cybercrime. redelocidi.tk; see also: Pillar One of the ITU Global Cybersecurity Agenda, available at. PDF | Over the last two decades, businesses, consumers, and governments around the In book: Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism Investigator's Handbook . International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: Issue 08, Volume 5 (August ) redelocidi.tk INTRODUCTION OF CYBER.
The key here is to make the alteration so insignificant that in a single case it would go completely unnoticed e. Further, it is not easy to identify immediately about the crime method used, and to answer questions like where and when it was done. The anonymity of the Internet makes it an ideal channel and instrument for many organized crime activities.
For the sake of recognition. For the sake of quick money. To fight a cause one thinks he believes in. Low marginal cost of online activity due to global reach. Catching by law and enforcement agency is less effective and more expensive.
New opportunity to do legal acts using technical architecture. Official investigation and criminal prosecution is rare. No concrete regulatory measure. Lack of reporting and standards J. Difficulty in identification. Limited media coverage. Same as conventional crime, cyber crime also constitutes of many types.
Some of the types of cyber crime as shown in figure 1. This can also be termed as E-Mail forging. The main goal of the attacker in this case is to interrupt the victim's e-mail service by sending him a large number of emails. Phishing refers to the receipt of unsolicited emails by customers of financial institutions, requesting them to enter their username, password or other personal information to access their account.
The criminal then has access to the customer's online bank account and to the funds contained in that account. This harassment could be sexual in nature, or it could have other motivations including anger. The most common type of crimes are software piracy, infringement of copyright, trademark , theft of computer source code, etc. For example two similar names i. Thus cyber vandalism means destroying or damaging the data or information stored in computer when a network service is stopped or disrupted.
Due to the hacking activity there will be loss of data as well as computer system. Also research especially indicates that those attacks were not mainly intended for financial gain too and to diminish the reputation of particular person or company. This requires little technical expertise and is common form of theft by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data, or by entering unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes; Altering, destroying, suppressing, or stealing output, usually to conceal unauthorized transactions.
The attackers typically target site or service hosted on high-profile web servers such as bank, credit card payment gateways, mobile phone networks and even root name servers.
In a Computer network environment, the key resources are CPU, memory, and bandwidth iv Virus attack: A computer virus is a malware program that, when executed, replicates by inserting copies of itself possibly modified into other computer programs, data files, or the boot sector of the hard drive; when this replication succeeds, the affected areas are then said to be "infected.
For example, a programmer may hide a piece of code that starts deleting files should they ever be terminated from the company. Use strong passwords. Change them on a regular basis. Block spyware attacks. Prevent spyware from infiltrating your computer by installing and updating anti- spyware software. Install the latest operating system updates: Keep your applications and operating system e. Turn on automatic updates to prevent potential attacks on older software.
Protect your data: Use encryption for your most sensitive files such as health records, tax returns, and financial records. Make regular backups of all of your important data. Secure your wireless network: Wi-Fi wireless networks are vulnerable to intrusion if they are not properly secured.
Avoid being scammed: Never reply to emails that ask you to verify your information or confirm your user ID or password. Check the source of the message; when in doubt, verify the source. This paper discussed different types of cyber crime.
Using this technique, the attacker can render a web site inoperable by sending massive amounts of traffic to the targeted site. A site may temporarily malfunction or crash completely, in any case resulting in inability of the system to communicate adequately. DoS attacks violate the acceptable use policies of virtually all internet service providers.
Denial-of-Service attacks typically target high profile web site servers belonging to banks and credit card payment gateways. Phishing This a technique of extracting confidential information such as credit card numbers and username password combos by masquerading as a legitimate enterprise. Phishing is typically carried out by email spoofing. Smart move. How phishing can net some really interesting catches The malware would have installed itself on your computer and stolen private information.
Cyber-criminals use social engineering to trick you into downloading malware off the internet or make you fill in your personal information under false pretenses. A phishing scam in an email message can be evaded by keeping certain things in mind.
Look for spelling mistakes in the text. Cyber-criminals are not known for their grammar and spelling. Check if the address matches with the one written in the message.
Watch out for fake threats. They might trick you by threatening that your security has been compromised. Attackers use the names and logos of well-known web sites to deceive you. The graphics and the web addresses used in the email are strikingly similar to the legitimate ones, but they lead you to phony sites.
Not all phishing is done via email or web sites. Vishing voice phishing involves calls to victims using fake identity fooling you into considering the call to be from a trusted organisation. They may claim to be from a bank asking you to dial a number provided by VoIP service and owned by attacker and enter your account details. Once you do that, your account security is compromised.
Treat all unsolicited phone calls with skepticism and never provide any personal information. The message is meaningless and excessively long in order to consume network resources. If multiple accounts of a mail server are targeted, it may have a denial-of-service impact. Such mail arriving frequently in your inbox can be easily detected by spam filters.
This type of attack is more difficult to control due to multiple source addresses and the bots which are programmed to send different messages to defeat spam filters.
Here unsolicited bulk messages are sent to a large number of users, indiscriminately. Opening links given in spam mails may lead you to phishing web sites hosting malware. Spam mail may also have infected files as attachments.
Email spamming worsens when the recipient replies to the email causing all the original addressees to receive the reply. A large amount of spam is sent to invalid email addresses. Email filters cleaning out spam mail Sending spam violates the acceptable use policy AUP of almost all internet service providers. However, what you can do is identify the source of the spam mails and have your router configured to block any incoming packets from that address.
Here, the hacker takes control of a web site fraudulently. He may change the content of the original site or even redirect the user to another fake similar looking page controlled by him.
The owner of the web site has no more control and the attacker may use the web site for his own selfish interests. Cases have been reported where the attacker has asked for ransom, and even posted obscene material on the site. The web jacking method attack may be used to create a clone of the web site, and present the victim with the new link saying that the site has moved.
But when you click on the new link, it opens and is quickly replaced with the malicious web server. It can be easily overlooked. Obviously not gmail. The purpose of this attack is to try to harvest the credentials, usernames, passwords and account numbers of users by using a fake web page with a valid link which opens when the user is redirected to it after opening the legitimate site. Cyber stalking Cyber stalking is a new form of internet crime in our society when a person is pursued or followed online.
Cyber stalking uses the internet or any other electronic means and is different from offline stalking, but is usually accompanied by it.
Most victims of this crime are women who are stalked by men and children who are stalked by adult predators and pedophiles. Cyber stalkers thrive on inexperienced web users who are not well aware of netiquette and the rules of internet safety. A cyber stalker may be a stranger, but could just as easily be someone you know. Cyber stalkers harass their victims via email, chat rooms, web sites, discussion forums and open publishing web sites e.
As the internet is increasingly becoming an integral part of our personal and professional lives, stalkers can take advantage of the ease of communications and the availability of personal information only a few mouse clicks away.
In addition, the anonymous and non-confrontational nature of internet communications further tosses away any disincentives in the way of cyber stalking.
Cyber stalking is done in two primary ways: Internet Stalking: Here the stalker harasses the victim via the internet. Unsolicited email is the most common way of threatening someone, and the stalker may even send obscene content and viruses by email.
However, viruses and unsolicited telemarketing email alone do not constitute cyber stalking. But if email is sent repeatedly in an attempt to intimidate the recipient, they may be considered as stalking.
Internet stalking is not limited to email; stalkers can more comprehensively use the internet to harass the victims. Computer Stalking: The more technologically advanced stalkers apply their computer skills to assist them with the crime.
Though this is usually done by proficient and computer savvy stalkers, instructions on how to accomplish this are easily available on the internet.
Cyber stalking has now spread its wings to social networking. With the increased use of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr and YouTube, your profile, photos, and status updates are up for the world to see. Your online presence provides enough information for you to become a potential victim of stalking without even being aware of the risk. Social networking technology provides a social and collaborative platform for internet users to interact, express their thoughts and share almost everything about their lives.
Though it promotes socialisation amongst people, along the way it contributes to the rise of internet violations.
Data diddling Data Diddling is unauthorised altering of data before or during entry into a computer system, and then changing it back after processing is done. Using this technique, the attacker may modify the expected output and is difficult to track.
The 12 types of Cyber Crime
This is one of the simplest methods of committing a computer-related crime, because even a computer amateur can do it. Despite this being an effortless task, it can have detrimental effects. Other examples include forging or counterfeiting documents and exchanging valid computer tapes or cards with prepared replacements.
Electricity boards in India have been victims of data diddling by computer criminals when private parties were computerizing their systems. Identity Theft and Credit Card Fraud Identity theft occurs when someone steals your identity and pretends to be you to access resources such as credit cards, bank accounts and other benefits in your name. The imposter may also use your identity to commit other crimes. Credit card fraud is identity theft in its simplest form. The only security measure on credit card downloads is the signature on the receipt but that can very easily be forged.
Some credit card companies have software to estimate the probability of fraud. If an unusually large transaction is made, the issuer may even call you to verify. Often people forget to collect their copy of the credit card receipt after eating at restaurants or elsewhere when they pay by credit card. These receipts have your credit card number and your signature for anyone to see and use.
With only this information, someone can make downloads online or by phone. Make sure the website is trustworthy and secure when shopping online. Some hackers may get a hold of your credit card number by employing phishing techniques. Sometimes a tiny padlock icon appears on the left screen corner of the address bar on your browser which provides a higher level of security for data transmission.
If you click on it, it will also tell you the encryption software it uses.
A more serious concern is the use of your personal information with the help of stolen or fake documents to open accounts or even worse, using your existing account to take a loan in your name. These unscrupulous people can collect your personal details from your mailbox or trash can remember to shred all sensitive documents.
Think of all the important details printed on those receipts, pay stubs and other documents. With rising cases of credit card fraud, many financial institutions have stepped in with software solutions to monitor your credit and guard your identity.This can also be termed as E-Mail forging.
Man is able to send and receive any form of data. Cyber bullying is any harassment that occurs via the Internet. Today internet is the fastest infrastructure in everyday life. Online harassment[ edit ] The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Cyber criminals are becoming more Sophisticated and are targeting consumers as well as public and private organizations. August Citation: This is some of the first solid legislation that combats cybercrime in this way.
Ammar Yassir and Smitha Nayak, "Cybercrime: Software Piracy Thanks to the internet and torrents, you can find almost any movie, software or song from any origin for free.
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